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Berlin, November 6 [, 1940]

Roosevelt has been re-elected for a third term! It is a resounding slap for Hitler and Ribbentrop and the whole Nazi regime. For despite Willkie’s almost outdoing the President in his promises to work for Britain’s victory, the Nazis ardently wished the Republican candidate to win. Nazi bigwigs made no secret of this in private, though Goebbels made the press ignore the election so as not to give the Democrats the advantage of saying that the Nazis were for Willkie.

William L. Shirer
Berlin Diary: The Journal of a Foreign Correspondent, 1934­–1941


If they were to invest the seaport of Syracuse, the Athenians had to build a wall that would surround it on the landward side. They were on the point of accomplishing this, when the Spartan Gylippus arrived with his forces just in time to interfere with the work, so effectively that the Syracusans were able to push their counter-wall past the Athenian line. Thus investment became impossible, and the task of the Athenians so much greater that it was to prove beyond their power. A dramatic moment, fate in the balance, “on a razor’s edge,” in Homeric phrase! —perhaps magnified for effect by the historian, in service to human vanity, which plumes itself on decisive action in crisis. παρὰ τοσοῦτον μὲν αἱ Συράκουσαι ἦλθον κινδύνου, comments Thucydides (7.2): So near to danger did Syracuse come, within so little distance of it, his expression fitting the narrowness of wall and time. He had used it once before (3.49), of the port of Mytilene, that one successfully walled in (3.18) and besieged by the Athenians but likewise saved by timely arrival, of word from Athens that the remaining townsfolk should be spared (a countermand anticipating the counter-wall).

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Finally, in this last part, the lame Meter.

It was on the 4th of Messidor in the year VII that the standard meter, and with it the standard kilogram, were presented to the legislature. —What, Messidor? VII? Yes, the Republic had been inaugurated on September 22, 1792, and on that day (it was eventually decided) began Year I. Years of the Republic had twelve months of 30 days each, plus some festival days; and the months, each beginning around the 20th of an English month, were Vendémiaire (Vintage-y), Brumaire (Misty), Frimaire (Frosty), Nivôse (Snowy), Pluviôse (Rainy), Ventôse (Windy), Germinal (Bud-y), Floréal (Flowery), Prairial (Meadowy), Messidor (Harvest-giver), Thermidor (Heat-giver), Fructidor (Fruit-giver). These names, bestowed by Fabre d’Églantine, whose head was cut off for his pains, were probably thought more dignified and poetical than those contrived by Sir Gregory Gander for the English calendar:

Snowy, Flowy, Blowy,
Showery, Flowery, Bowery,
Hoppy, Croppy, Droppy,
Breezy, Sneezy, Freezy.

But they were hardly more exact. Besides, Sir Gregory kept his head. —Messidor began on June 20th, so the big day must have been June 23, 1799.

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It is by no means only the introduction of arbitrary subdivisions (mere arithmetical adjustment) that removes the “natural” unit of length from nature. No, the Earth itself refuses to sanction the aspirations of the founders of the metric system.

Since the 17th century it has been known that the length of a pendulum beating seconds varies with its location on the Earth; specifically, with the latitude. This is because the constant of proportionality between time and the square root of length depends on the acceleration of gravity g—the rate at which the speed of a freely falling body increases—and g varies with latitude. Hence if the pendulum is to deliver a unit of length, the arbitrary choice of the second of time must be supplemented by something still less justifiable: the selection of a place on the Earth to put the pendulum.

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In this part, “wretched matter” begins to assert itself.

If we want to measure length, we need a unit of length. Given such a unit, not only lengths, but areas and volumes as well, can be expressed in terms of it: foot, square foot, cubic foot. The founders of the new system desired a natural unit, one that would not depend upon an arbitrary choice, and that would be perpetually available in the natural world, so that it could readily be consulted in case of doubt. Neither criterion would be satisfied by (for example) the length of the king’s foot.

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Milton explained that rhyme was “the Invention of a barbarous Age, to set off wretched matter and lame Meter,” so of course he didn’t need it. No more do I need his explanation, only his phrase, to introduce a delightful book, Les Origines du Système Métrique (The Origins of the Metric System), by Adrien Favre, Professeur au Lycée du Toulouse—which means a high-school teacher in a provincial city, then of a couple of hundred thousand people, far from Paris—published in 1931.

“Before the establishment of our Metric System,” he begins, “there reigned in France, among the units of measure, an incredible confusion.” Naming twenty-two of them, he invites us to think of Rabelais’s lists, and then reveals that the twenty-two were merely the subdivisions of the agrarian measures in one area of the country, Haute-Garonne—a place where, while the measures themselves had only five different names, these designated forty-three different actual measures.

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